A legal guide to buying resale property in Spain

A legal guide to buying resale property in Spain


1. Hire a Qualified Registered Lawyer

This is the single most important advice you can be given. If you only happen to follow this first tip the rest of the points mentioned in this article become redundant.

Hiring a lawyer is by no means mandatory on conveyance procedures. But I cannot stress enough the importance of retaining a Spanish lawyer, if you are a foreigner, to act on your behalf in a conveyance procedure, both on buying and selling property.
It is often that I hear that those with vested interests in their being no lawyers involved – I wonder why – are often the most outspoken on advocating that retaining a lawyer is an unnecessary expense and always put as an example that Spaniards don’t hire them on buying property.

Whilst it may be true that Spaniards, in most cases, do not retain a lawyer to act on their behalf in a conveyance this can be explained for a number of reasons. Almost every Spaniard has a relative or a friend who happens to be a lawyer and advises them free of charge. Besides they are fluent in their own language (!) and have ready access to a myriad of legal articles which are regularly published in the press. Despite this Spaniards still end up having all sorts of problems on buying or selling property because they did not want to incur in additional expenses hiring a lawyer. Quite often their blunder far exceeds what a lawyer would have charged for his service (typically 1% of the property’s value plus VAT).

To identify oneself as an ‘abogado/lawyer’ one must be both qualified and registered in Spain:

i) Qualified: having passed and attained a Spanish Law degree or else by having homologated it
ii) Registered: being admitted to practice Law at one of Spain’s regional Bar Associations

The second point is already inclusive of the first one, as on applying to practice Law before a Bar Association one must submit both his Law degree and his full academic record. Additionally, someone with a criminal record may not join the Law Society. One should exercise extreme caution on those claiming to be an ‘abogado’ and yet are unregistered to practice. Ask yourself why? Quite a few of the notorious mishaps featured in the press relate to non-qualified intruders dealing in conveyance matters.

Someone who is not registered in a Bar Association cannot entertain to address themselves as a ‘lawyer’ nor legally perform the duties and roles of one.

Registered lawyers need to abide by the Code of Ethics of the regional Law Society to which they belong. In serious cases a lawyer can be struck off the Bar and barred to practice law.

I write the above because I have been alarmed over the last years, since Spain’s economic depression began in 2007, by the increasing number of bogus law firms which have been set up by unscrupulous people who are neither registered to practice as lawyers nor qualified (no legal background whatsoever or even holding a completely unrelated professional background i.e. Advertising Executive!).

Only registered lawyers have Professional Indemnity Insurance which may protect you in the event of malpractice or negligence. You can claim against said insurance in such a case. All registered lawyers are assigned a practising number by their Law Society i.e. number 6072 of Malaga’s Law Society. You can easily check if your lawyer is registered to practice law on this Registered Lawyer’s Database.

Bottom line; make sure your lawyer is registered to practice, for your own sake. Be wary of cold-calling from legal advisors, senior legal advisors, legal executives, legal assistants, paralegals and in general anyone who does not clearly identify himself/herself as a lawyer/abogado (and is therefore registered). Unlike other countries such as the United Kingdom these fancy titles don’t mean anything in Spain – we have no paralegals. Or you are either a registered Spanish lawyer or you are not – period. It’s that simple. Someone who is not a trained registered lawyer is not qualified to give legal advice in any shape or form, cannot entertain to address himself/herself as a ‘lawyer’, cannot solicit clients for legal services – even if outsourced – nor practice law in Spain.

If the property you wish to buy is of a high value you may want to seek advice beforehand so as to mitigate tax exposure, namely to Spanish Inheritance Tax. Often the best tax planning results are achieved prior to acquiring a property as they may require the incorporation of a string of holding companies to lock up the asset.

Bottom line it is advisable to retain an independent lawyer in Spain.

You can check this list of recommended English-speaking lawyers or request one from your home country’s local consulate in Spain.

2.Has the Property Been Registered Properly?

It is commonplace that extensions on properties are unregistered at the Land Registry. You will only find out on requesting a mortgage loan when a lender either turns you down or else offers significantly less money than what you anticipated because the extensions remain unregistered i.e. a four bedroom villa is registered only as a two bedroom property. Following this example, a lender will only value the property as a two-bedroom as the remaining two bedrooms do not exist from a legal point of view and therefore cannot be mortgaged thus reducing the overall value of the property.

This problem can be easily overcome by signing a new build deed at a Notary and paying the associated local tax levied by the town hall for the extension. This deed is then registered and the property description is amended accordingly adapting it to reality. This ought to be done by the vendor prior to the sale, unless specifically agreed otherwise. Such a case is rife in rural properties.

Other cases, such as illegal rural properties, may be fraught with legal problems i.e. a rural property was given a licence to build a small tool hut (‘casa de aperos’) of 3*3 m² to store the tools to plough the fields. Yet using this legal ‘loophole’ planning rules are easily circumvented and a villa may be built instead – which may be lead local authorities to threat with demolition at the owner’s expense besides imposing fines and even criminal action being taken in the most serious cases. Rural properties can be a legal quagmire and it is essential you retain a lawyer to act on your behalf and best advice you on the matter, from the very beginning.

In other cases, for perfectly legitimate reasons, properties remain unregistered or they lack a title deed (‘escritura’) i.e. property inherited from one generation to another in rural areas. There are several legal ways to overcome this minor setback: ‘Acta de Notoriedad’ or else following an ‘Expediente de Dominio’.

3. Is the Property Registered under the Vendor’s Name?

This may sound as a fairly obvious point but quite often than not I’ve found out the person who had the property listed at the estate agency was not the registered owner. This can be explained for a number of legitimate reasons i.e. the registered owner has passed away recently and the inheritance tax liability has not been sorted out yet. Until the Spanish IHT is not settled, the property cannot be registered, mortgaged or sold by his beneficiaries.

This will be one of the first checks your appointed lawyer will carry out. You can actually do it yourself requesting what is known as a nota simple at the Land Registry where the property is located either physically or online (you have to be a registered user for the latter).

Only the owner or someone else appointed by him acting as proxy (empowered with a Power of Attorney) can sell a property.

4. Ensure the Property Complies with Spain’s Coastal Law

If you are buying a resale, make sure it is not within the protected area of Public Domain or else you may risk your house being pulled down, at your expense, by the local Authorities. Spain’s Coastal Law was passed in 1988 but it hasn’t been until recently that the Government decided to enforce it harshly.

The Government has however recently proposed introducing an amendment to the costal law which in practice will amount – to all intents and purposes – to a generalised amnesty. Thousands of properties which were assailed over looming demolition will now be safe to buy and sell as a result. A very smart move by the Government that has successfully averted what would otherwise have been a death knell for Spain’s real estate sector.

5. Are There Charges, Encumbrances or Debts Against the Property?

Additionally the above land registry information will describe the property (size, bedrooms, boundaries etc.) and reveal if there are any charges or liens against it i.e. a mortgage, a right-of-way or even an embargo.

However you should know that not all debts against a property are lodged at the Land Registry. This is yet another angle which your conveyance lawyer will cover. For example, on buying a resale in a Community of Owners in Spain outstanding debts go against the property itself not against the former owner. On buying a resale you are liable for all the debts of the previous owner in the current year in which you are buying as well as the previous two years; in other words, dating back three years. Your lawyer should request a certificate from the Community of Owners stating the property is up-to-date with the community payments and will include it in the Notary’s deed at completion. This certificate will act as your safeguard against any community claim on bad debts from the previous homeowner.

The new owner will also be held liable for unpaid utility services and local taxes. This is because these debts go against the property itself, not against the previous owner. So whoever owns the property will be held liable. Your lawyer will likewise also ensure prior to buying a resale there are none outstanding.

Other local taxes levied by the town hall where the property is located may be left outstanding by the previous owner (i.e. IBI tax and Garbage collection). These will not be lodged either at the Land Registry.

It may be a good idea to hire Title Insurance just to play it safe. There are companies offering a twenty year legal protection at very competitive prices. It’s well worth looking into.

6. Are There Tenants Living in The Property?

You should be keenly aware that in Spain laws are biased towards tenants for historical reasons. If you happen to buy a resale which, unbeknownst to you, is being let by means of a Tenancy agreement signed after the 1st of January 1995, you will be forced to respect their tenancy until it elapses to take possession of the property. In Spain long- terms are for five years although this has been slightly amended by the ‘Express Eviction Law’ which was passed recently. You can however reach an agreement with the tenant to leave the property beforehand in exchange of a suitable settlement. Additionally recent laws have introduced a limited number of scenarios where this mandatory five-year rule may be overridden by the landlord if required. But you cannot force them on this point.

On buying bank repossessions in Spain you may find a tenant living inside with a long-term contract. Even lenders on repossessing properties have to respect long-term tenants, unless they reach a settlement with them.

Moreover, these long-term tenants may be legally entitled to exercise their pre-emption and buyout rights (‘derecho de tanteo y retracto’) in a resale as enshrined in section 25 of Spain’s Tenancy Act. Landlords must notify their long term tenants, prior to the sale of the property, their intention in doing so as well as the sale conditions so that tenants may exercise their right of first refusal within the next 30 days. Failure to communicate it or doing it in a flawed manner (i.e. the mentioned sales price is in fact higher) will trigger their buyout right. It will then be up to the tenant on whether to exercise it or not.

One of the main problems on buying in Spain is that unfortunately there is no tenant’s public registry that you can check previously; so on buying a resale you are really taking a gamble as you just don’t know for sure if there are long-term tenants living in the property. Seldom are long-term tenancies registered at the Land Registry.

A lawyer can of course draft specific clauses both in a Private Purchase Contract (PPC), as well as in the title deed, to protect you against the above as well as other unforeseen events i.e. squatters in Spain.

7. Know Your Owner’s Rights

If you are buying in a Spanish Community of Owners (‘Comunidad de Propietarios’) it is advisable you request beforehand both the Community Statutes and the Internal Community Rules (the latter being optional, do not always exist) to avoid future problems with your neighbours i.e. an internal rule which bans tenants from using communal installations such as a swimming pool or a gymnasium (both are real life examples). Such limitations can be particularly troublesome for landlords who bought property on a Spanish buy-to-let premise not to mention that it can be challenged. Assembly resolutions may be challenged (both AGMs and EGMs) if necessary.

Additionally, depending on which of Spain’s 17 regions the property you are buying is located in, besides being protected by the Consumer Protection Act which rules nationwide, you are also protected by specific regional consumer laws. An example of the latter would be Decree 218/2005 which rules on consumer rights on buying and renting property exclusively for the autonomous region of Andalucía. These regional laws compliment and bolster national laws adding security and rights to consumers at large.

8. You do have a NIE number, right?

A Spanish NIE number is a Tax Identification Number for foreigners enabling you to file and pay taxes into the Spanish Tax office. It will be required, for example, on buying and selling property, on inheriting assets in Spain, on opening a bank account, on buying a car, etc.

You cannot complete on a property in Spain without one, either on buying or selling, as the Notary will disallow it.

9. Post-Completion: Make Sure the Property is now Registered Under Your Name

Once you’ve completed (or closed) on the property you should ensure it has been registered properly under your name. This process takes on average 30-60 days after completion. If you applied for a Spanish mortgage loan and your lender is the one dealing with registering the property, expect at least a delay of six months – if not more – until you are returned the original title deed. Banks always withhold the original Mortgage deed for their records and will give you only an authorised copy. Once the property has been duly registered you can request the original title deed for your safekeeping. Losing the original title deed or escritura is only a minor setback as you can easily request copies from the Notary where it was signed.

10. Post-Completion: Dealing with Property Taxes, Utilities and Community Fees

Once you have acquired your new property, you will now have to face all the associated running expenses. Make sure you have budgeted this carefully so as to avoid unpleasant surprises! Some of the luxury gated communities with lush tropical gardens and beautiful infinity pools that dot the Spanish coastlines may have pretty steep maintenance expenses. Any unpaid community bills will result in the Community of Owners placing a charge against your property which may lead to auctioning it off publicly to recoup the debt! This legal procedure in Spain works fairly efficiently (as in twelve months on average).

Post-boom many new build developments remain largely unsold. Developers or ailing owners have been forced to hand over their properties to lenders on slipping into arrears. These lenders in turn are some of the worst offenders on community payments which translate into an increase of the fees borne by the remaining community members to offset this loss. Only Spain’s most prominent lenders are actually paying the community fees on their properties. Spanish savings banks are particularly notorious for not being up-to-date with their community fees. This is creating a vicious spiral putting the properties at stake of those financially weaker community members as they themselves struggle to remain afloat because the supposedly financially ‘stronger’ EU-bailed-out lenders are not contributing to their fair share of community payments. Bringing a legal case against them will mean community members will have to hire a lawyer which entails additional expenses.

You should open a Spanish bank account if you haven’t done so already. Utility companies do not accept overseas payments and like setting invoices as standing orders against your Spanish account. You should set at least as standing orders all the following:

IBI tax. Paid once a year (akin to the UK’s Council tax).
Garbage collection. Paid twice or once a year depending on the town hall.
Utility bills (invoiced quarterly in the case of water and monthly with electricity).
Community fees (only if you’ve purchased in a Commonhold). Usually quarterly but can vary.
You are also liable to file Income tax on owning property in Spain every year for which you may need to appoint Fiscal Representation in Spain.

Finally I cannot stress enough how advisable it is that you make a Spanish will to dispose of your Spanish estate. This will not preclude any other made in your home country and is limited exclusively to your Spanish assets. It will save your beneficiaries time, money and hassle at a time of bereavement.

11. Careful with the Tax Office on Buying or Selling at a Discounted Price

And now that I’ve established it is a great time to buy property in Spain – the bad news. Due to Spain’s ongoing real estate depreciation many buyers are securing properties at such knockdown prices they are unwittingly drawing the attention of the tax office. So much so that over the last years many will have received a letter from Spain’s Inland Revenue some six months after completion demanding complementary tax is paid on the property. This is known as “la complementaria” in Spanish legal jargon and affects resale property. You can read further in my article La Complementaria or Bargain Hunter Tax on how to pre-empt it and how to appeal one.

In the case of Andalusia, with which I’m more familiar, on buying distressed Spanish property you should pre-empt this by requesting beforehand an assessed property valuation specifically for tax purposes. This will be a legally binding report which your lawyer may use at a later date. Regional Tax Offices in charge of tax transfers will have a value on properties, from which they will not budge, and if you happen to buy below said value they will request tax on the difference as they will suspect you may have under-declared at completion – which I can assure in most cases is simply not the case; it is merely one more consequence of today’s depressed market.

If you have already received this letter you can either pay the requested tax or else appeal it. Providing the difference is not ‘significant’, your chances of appealing it may be fairly high. Obviously if it is a low amount it may not warrant the expense of hiring a lawyer to appeal it. But for high-end property it may be worth every penny.

In Conclusion

Despite the negative press the Spanish property market has endured abroad over the last years, specifically off-plan, the fact is that the vast majority of dozens of thousands of buyers who purchase property in Spain every year experience no problems and enjoy a straightforward transaction. In any case, if unsure, you can always sign a rent-to-buy contract to test the waters.

2010 and 2013 © Raymundo Larraín Nesbitt, All rights reserved.

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    Welcome to the website of the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle,
    the elite escort agency for those looking for the company of sexy and uninhibited female companions.
    As a friendly, honest and performance-focused, female run operation, we are the best escort agency
    in North East today.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Why is the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle the best?

    Newcastle Escorts
    We are the best because we focus on what really matters:
    we find the most genuine, friendly, open-minded and
    naturally stunning ladies in Newcastle and match them up with
    discerning and cultured gentlemen like you.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Whatever your taste or mood. Our Newcastle escort portfolio offers a thrilling diversity of Newcastle escort ladies for
    you to choose from, who are happy to be your ideal escort
    companion for any of your needs and desires.
    Newcastle Escorts
    We know that every client wants a particular type of girl, and sometimes you require an escort for a romantic dinner date, while other times
    you may just feel for a stolen hour of uninhibited erotic pleasure with a sexy vixen escort.
    For this reason we always ensure that out escort
    portfolio has every type of companion you can dream of.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Newcastle Escorts
    Why choose an escort from the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle?

    Newcastle Escorts
    We are the most popular and friendliest escort agency in Newcastle,
    and our business model is helping girls meet interesting and respectful gentlemen like you for exciting escort dates in the city of Newcastle and it’s
    surrounding areas.

    Our open, female management style also ensures that
    the escort girls who you will meet are all of the highest standard and willingness to be the perfect escort companion.

    Other Newcastle escort agencies may pressure their ladies into
    dates with clients, or make them go out of their comfort
    zone, and the experience is a let down for everyone, but with the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle you are ensured
    perfect satisfaction as each girl wants to meet you and fulfill your wishes
    as a willing partner.

    What are the advantages of booking through us?

    Here are some more reasons to book your next Newcastle companion through us:

    Different Kinds of girls, from experienced and open-minded Newcastle escorts
    to charming and demure sex kittens

    Competitive pricing

    Safe and friendly female management

    Seeks to build repeat business with clients who live in or visit Newcastle often

    Encourage honest feedback from clients about our escorts, either to us or
    to the revi Newcastle Escortsew sites

    So there you have it, there are many reasons to consider the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle when booking your next Newcastle escort companion.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Take the Next Step…

    Please now visit our portfolio of Newcastle escorts, our news section where you can be kept up to date with all the latest new, reviews, and additions to our ever
    expanding team.
    Newcastle Escorts Newcastle Escorts Newcastle Escorts Newcastle Escorts
    We look forward to talking soon, and helping you enjoy your ideal escort
    experience through the Allure Escort Agency.

    ________________________________________
    Newcastle Escorts Newcastle Escorts
    This web site is of an adult nature and as such, requires you to be at least 18 years of
    age to view. If you agree to the above statements and are 18 or over,
    please continue, otherwise, please leave…

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    You get top-class, professional and confidential services that is well within your budget when you
    pair up with a breathtaking glam doll. We list for you the best
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    Our divas are great fashionistas, always up for fun and experimentation and you will
    love to enjoy a passion-ride in their company!
    We have a resourceful gallery and all the pictures of the amazing Nottingham
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    Make the most of our incall and outcall services

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    It is time that you trash all worries and get into the self-indulgent mode to bask in the pool of pleasure.
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    Welcome to the website of the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle, the
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    of sexy and uninhibited female companions. As a friendly, honest and performance-focused, female run operation, we are the best escort agency in North East today.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Why is the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle the best?

    Newcastle Escorts
    We are the best because we focus on what really matters: we find the most genuine, friendly, open-minded
    and naturally stunning ladies in Newcastle and match them up with discerning and cultured gentlemen like you.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Whatever your taste or mood. Our Newcastle escort portfolio offers a thrilling diversity of Newcastle
    escort ladies for you to choose from, who are happy to be your ideal escort companion for any of your needs
    and desires.
    Newcastle Escorts
    We know that every client wants a particular type of girl,
    and sometimes you require an escort for a romantic dinner date,
    while other times you may just feel for a stolen hour of uninhibited erotic pleasure with a sexy vixen escort.
    For this reason we always ensure that out escort portfolio has every type of companion you
    can dream of.
    Newcastle Escorts
    Newcastle Escorts
    Why choose an escort from the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle?

    Newcastle Escorts
    We are the most popular and friendliest escort agency in Newcastle, and our
    business model is helping girls meet interesting and respectful gentlemen like you for exciting
    escort dates in the city of Newcastle and it’s surrounding areas.

    Our open, female management style also ensures that the escort girls who you will
    meet are all of the highest standard and willingness to be the perfect escort companion.

    Other Newcastle escort agencies may pressure
    their ladies into dates with clients, or make them go out of their comfort
    zone, and the experience is a let down for everyone, but with the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle you are ensured perfect satisfaction as each girl wants
    to meet you and fulfill your wishes as a willing
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    What are the advantages of booking through us?

    Here are some more reasons to book your next Newcastle companion through
    us:

    Different Kinds of girls, from experienced and open-minded Newcastle escorts to charming
    and demure sex kittens

    Competitive pricing

    Safe and friendly female management

    Seeks to build repeat business with clients who live in or visit Newcastle often

    Encourage honest feedback from clients about our escorts, either
    to us or to the revi Newcastle Escortsew sites

    So there you have it, there are many reasons to consider
    the Allure Escort Agency in Newcastle when booking your next Newcastle escort companion.

    Newcastle Escorts
    Take the Next Step…

    Please now visit our portfolio of Newcastle escorts, our news section where you can be kept up to date with all the latest new, reviews, and additions to our ever expanding team.

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    ________________________________________
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  64. When you want to lay your hands on the most exclusive
    and exquisite diamonds, you must have the sense to sort
    it out from worthless pebbles that might look tempting! We, at Elite Diamond Escorts, are equipped with the best diamond-like divas who has studded our gallery- and they are nothing short of the precious diamonds.
    Looking for the best partner to whisk away time while enjoying her jocund company?
    Our Nottingham escorts fit the bill perfectly!
    When you have once sealed the deal with us,
    you would approach us time and again to satiate your pleasure
    needs. You get top-class, professional and confidential services that is well within your budget when you pair
    up with a breathtaking glam doll. We list for you the
    best escorts in Nottingham, Derby, Mansfield and Leicester.

    Our gallery exudes class apart charm: Elite exclusive
    Escorts Nottingham! Leicester Escorts

    Do you dream of enjoying the sizzling company of a English babe with a hourglass figure, scintillating moves, lustrous
    eyes, rose-petal like lips, pink cheeks and buttery smooth skin? If a sprightly Spanish lady
    gives an impetus to your desires to get naughty with her
    blonde locks, smart moves, naughty looks or an American beauty becomes too hot to handle for you- yes, at Elite Diamond Escorts you get swept off your feet when you
    check out our variety. The high-profile ladies have an indelible
    aura about them. These ladies are erotic genies and
    can gag your senses with their charm, killer looks and wow-worthy escorting prowess.
    Our divas are great fashionistas, always up
    for fun and experimentation and you will love to enjoy a passion-ride in their company!

    We have a resourceful gallery and all the pictures of the amazing
    Nottingham escorts are 100% genuine and updated.

    Make the most of our incall and outcall services

    All the male brigade dreaming of dating a lady who will be a replica of that stunning model gracing glossy covers or be with a oh-so-irresistible star-like erotic queen can fulfill
    their dream as Elite Diamond Escorts enable them to enjoy the company of high-profile ladies.
    With zero emotional investment, there is nothing that can stop you from indulging in romantic hit-chats
    with cute ladies to heating up things with a sassy one, squeeze out
    mischievous moments from a frisky banter,
    play the ‘touch-me’ ‘touch-me-not’ game flirting to the core and dropping in some real good
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    plush apartment and hire high class incall escorts
    Nottingham services.

    If you are in the hunt for outcall Nottingham escorts and have stopped by
    Elite Diamond Escorts, then you are sure to come across some
    amazing party girls, divas who are refined and polished enough
    to zoom in to the cultural hubs, entertainment zones and more- walking steadily by your side.

    If you have a mind to heat up things within the erotic confines of
    a hotel room where your lady drops in to meet and rustle up fun-
    you can delve deep into the depths of erotica and play like a true rockstar!
    She can offer you loads of entertainment via strip shows, lap dance,
    role-playing, fulfilling fetishes, making your nights colored with the
    brightest passion strokes.

    Our seamless booking process at Elite Diamond Nottingham Escorts

    It is the amazing variety of our damsels which makes you glued
    to our gallery that breathes genuineness. You can check the profiles, descriptions and details of the Nottingham escorts and if you need any kind of assistance to contact your girl,
    then you do not need to worry at all, just get talking to
    one of our friendly receptionists and you can select your dream diva with ease.
    Ask any question that might be hovering on your mind and among the beautiful elite escorts in Nottingham with care!
    Pour in your details and all your information will be on safe hands.

    We offer affordable, professional and discreet services

    As an elite Nottingham escort agency of repute, we know how to bring in the true smile
    in your face! Whether you spend quality time with a diva
    just for an hour, spent some gala hours in the evening or plan for an overnight session of fun,
    we keep fun sessions affordable for you. Grab the best
    deals and we keep your private sessions strictly confidential.
    It is time that you trash all worries and get into the self-indulgent mode to bask in the pool
    of pleasure. We are true professionals and you get
    only premium services from us that will not dig a big hole in your pocket.
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